CAICE IMPACTS 2014

Approaching the Finish Line…

Although it was a ton of hard work, I have enjoyed being part of the CAICE (Center for Aerosol Impacts on Climate and the Environment) IMPACTS (Investigation into Marine Particle Chemistry and Transfer Science) 2014 intensive. Professors and students from all over the country are gathered here to better understand the link between ocean biology and the composition and physical properties of particles emitted from sea spray.

10457561_692410517491553_292097329586178028_n[2]I am a 3rd year graduate student in Chris Cappa’s group at UC Davis. I came to UC San Diego to investigate how much these particles grow as a result of humidification using a cavity ring-down spectrometer (CRD). The larger these particles grow, the more light they scatter. By scattering solar radiation, these particles cool the planet and are therefore important for understanding the Earth’s climate. Particles emitted from sea spray take up a lot of water because they are mostly composed of salt. However, the biology of the ocean impacts what these particles are made of and, by making the particle less “salty,” can decrease the how much water they take up.

The "beach" area of the wave flume in the Hydraulic Lab at SIO
The “beach” area of the wave flume in the Hydraulic Lab at SIO

My goal is to quantify how changes in particle composition due to biological processes in seawater influence how much these particles grow due to humidification.
During this unique, once-in-a-lifetime experiment, everyone I have worked with has been incredibly positive and fun to be around. At the end of IMPACTS, I will leave with both exciting data and many new friends.

 

Sara Forestieri, Graduate Student, Cappa Group, Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering at UC Davis

CAICE IMPACTS 2014

Collaboration and teamwork are a key to great discoveries

Dozens of instruments from many universities, this is what it takes to do real science! Nowadays, great discoveries are not possible within one laboratory working in isolation. Collaborations of research teams that have various techniques, approaches, and backgrounds from multiple scientific disciplines are necessary for innovations and advances. This summer professors, graduate and undergraduate students from all over the country came to Scripps Institution of Oceanography at University of California, San Diego to participate in 2014 NSF Center for Aerosol Impacts on Climate and the Environment (CAICE) IMPACTS (Investigation into Marine PArticle Chemistry and Transfer Science) campaign.

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The author, Olga, and her group mate Jon preparing for particle collection on MOUDI

I came from the University of Iowa where I just started my fifth year of graduate school in Dr. Vicki Grassian research group. My area of interest is phase, composition and hygroscopicity of individual sea spray aerosol particles. We collect particles generated during wave breaking and then take them back to Iowa for detailed micro-structural analysis with a variety of microscopic and spectroscopic techniques. Atomic force microscopy is a tool to image the surface of particles at the nanoscale and it is exceptionally noteworthy that it can reveal 3D shape of particles. Scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy can image particles down to 1 nm resolution and when used with energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy can reveal spatial elemental composition of particles. Raman microspectroscopy gives information about vibrations of functional groups thus revealing chemical composition of particles as small as several hundred nanometers. Elemental and molecular composition derived from these techniques can be combined with on-line measurements such as aerosol time-of-flight mass spectrometry to get the most complete information about particles’ composition. All microscopy techniques can be performed in chambers where relative humidity is be controlled and size of particles is monitored using microscope. Therefore, we can detect how particles grow in humid environment. Raman microspectrometer can detect the water in particles spectroscopically and thus can be additionally used to monitor water content of particles as relative humidity changes. It is very important to know how particles interact with water as it determines how particles will interact with light, form clouds and react with trace gases in the atmosphere (which can be fairly humid). Finally, as we learn about the dependence of particles’ properties on their detailed chemical composition we can understand and more importantly predict their properties in the environment better!

As I have already mentioned collaboration is a key for breakthrough research discoveries. Collaboration and teamwork! This picture illustrates teamwork in action where Jon and Olga (author) are putting together stages to collect sea spray aerosol particles. This is a great campaign that unites many research groups and I look forward to analyzing our particles and working with other participating groups to shade more light on marine atmosphere.

Olga Laskina, Research Assistant, Grassian Research Group, Department of Chemistry at University of Iowa

CAICE IMPACTS 2014

Another world record…?

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Jon Trueblood, University of Iowa graduate student, working with one of the MOUDI impactors

I arrived here in San Diego on July 15, 2014 just in time to see everything working!!! This includes phytoplankton blooms occurring in multiple MART systems and of course the 33 m wave flume. I am so impressed with the students and postdocs who were able to get this first time every experiment going – the largest indoor phytoplankton bloom – a world record.   I see many happy (and some tired) faces. What is clear is that everyone is now excited as we are starting to collect very significant data and many new chemistry findings are starting to be realized. These studies will focus on the molecular speciation and chemical complexity of the sea surface microlayer and of sea spray aerosol. A number of off-line and on-line analyses will be done to determine what molecular species are present in order to better understand the transfer of molecules from sea water, and the sea surface microlayer, into sea spray aerosol. This will give us more detailed information on the chemistry of sea spray aerosol. For off-line analysis of sea spray aerosol, a wide range of substrates are being used to collect particles for single particle analysis using a MOUDI impactor to get size resolved composition. Overall, CAICE investigators aim to analyze the chemical composition, structure, phase, hygroscopicity, and reactive properties of as many particles as possible. By the end of the experiment it is estimated that nearly one billion sea spray aerosol particles will be collected. That is right – one billion particles!!! (Another world record???) I can’t wait to see what we learn from these samples in the next few months.

In addition to the great science we continue to give tours to everyone who wants to see what we are doing. Saturday morning a group of high school and undergraduate students came by to view the wave flume here in the hydraulics lab at SIO. It was fun to see how they were excited to see the experiment and to talk to them about it. We discussed the importance of chemistry and the molecular fundamental knowledge needed to understand sea spray aerosol. We then all went out to the pier to see where the sea water came from and to take look at the other experiments there. We also enjoyed the beautiful view – what a great way to spend a Saturday morning!

 

Vicki Grassian, F. Wendell Miller Professor of Chemistry at the University of Iowa and CAICE, Co-Director

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